What is PCOS? Your guide to the condition that affects 1 in 10 women

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  • Polycystic ovary syndrome affects millions of women in the UK and around the world – so what actually is it?

    September marks PCOS awareness month – an entire month dedicated to raising awareness of the often unknown (and untreated) female health condition polycystic ovary syndrome, otherwise known as PCOS.

    The hormonal imbalance affects millions of women all over the world and one in ten women in the UK – but despite it being so common, there’s still a lot of misunderstanding about what it is and how to effectively treat it.

    For example, many presume that PCOS means you can’t have children – when actually, the NHS reports that most PCOS-suffering women can get pregnant with treatment.

    While things are changing – the government has appointed Maria Caulfield as the first ever female health minister and announced a female health strategy after a UK-wide survey revealing damning stats about the gender health gap and how conditions like PCOS are undertreated – more needs to be done.

    Despite there being no cure, there are a number of ways that the disorder can be managed so it doesn’t impact on your life – just like with endometriosis symptoms, PMDD symptoms and PMS symptoms. Below, the experts break down the main symptoms and treatment options, as well as dispelling a few more common myths about PCOS.

    What is PCOS? 

    PCOS is a female health condition characterised by small, fluid-filled sacs known as follicles (not cysts, as the name suggests) in your ovaries.

    PCOS can cause irregular periods (or even missed periods) well as a number of other possible side effects.

    ‘It’s the most common female hormonal disorder, with some studies suggesting up to one in five of us are affected,’ says gynaecologist Dr Anita Mitra, aka Gynae Geek.

    How can you tell if you have PCOS?

    Good question – as it’s not always easy to spot. Mitra explains that diagnosis requires two out of the following three to be present:

    • Irregular or absent periods
    • Signs of excess male hormones, including excess body, facial hair or acne
    • High levels on a blood test
    • Polycystic ovaries (as seen on an ultrasound).

    ‘About 70% of women with PCOS also have a degree of insulin resistance, the hormone that regulates our blood sugar. This results in excess production, which drives the ovaries to produce lots of testosterone, the root of many of the symptoms.’

    Currently, the exact cause of PCOS is unknown, and although it’s thought that there could be a genetic link at play, this hasn’t yet been proven through scientific research.

    So, what are the symptoms of PCOS?

    There are a number of different symptoms that are frequently seen in PCOS cases. ‘The most common symptoms are acne and or problems with periods – either irregular (oligomeorrhoea) or total absence (amenorrhoea),’ says Dr Anita.

    The NHS lists other common symptoms as:

    • Excessive hair growth on the face and body
    • Weight gain
    • Thinning hair
    • Hair loss from the head
    • Difficulty getting pregnant.

    Any of these symptoms are worth a trip to see your GP and discuss, especially if you are concerned that you may have PCOS.

    To diagnose the condition, your doctor will likely arrange some form of hormonal testing, but also to rule out other possible hormonal disorders. They may also arrange an ultrasound to examine your ovaries, and a blood test to measure your hormone levels.

    Do note, however: as per the NHS website, more than half of women with PCOS never experience symptoms.

    What’s the treatment for PCOS?

    Know this: PCOS is treatable. Your doctor will be able to advise which are best for you, but below we’ve broken down some of the most common.

    1. The pill

    The pill can work to alleviate PCOS symptoms – but you should know that the combined oral contraceptive pill doesn’t balance your hormones in the way many people believe, or so shares Anita.

    ‘It will give you a regular cycle back again, but it’s likely your periods will revert to being irregular once you stop, because this doesn’t correct the underlying hormonal problem. Taking this will also usually help with acne.’

    2. Metformin

    One treatment option for women who want to get pregnant is medication that encourages ovulation; the first option is usually a drug called Clomefine and if this does not work, Metformin may be recommended.

    ‘This is a medication for diabetes that can be used to improve insulin sensitivity, which can be the root of PCOS in many women,’ Anita tells us. ‘It has been shown to improve menstrual cycle regularity and increase the chance of ovulation, which is important if you’re trying to get pregnant.’

    ‘However, the most common side effects are diarrhoea and stomach cramps.’


    3. Inositol

    ‘A supplement that can be bought over the counter, this one has gained a lot of popularity,’ explains Anita. ‘It also seems to work as an insulin sensitiser, but doesn’t seem to have the same side effects as Metformin. There are a couple of different types of inositol and it’s the myo-inositiol form that seems to be most effective.’

    ‘However, there haven’t been any really large studies or trials conducted yet, so we aren’t really sure of the optimum dose. As such, you probably won’t find many doctors recommending it as yet – but I think that’ll come in the future.’

    Keen to read more about PCOS supplements? Read one woman’s journey, here.

    4. Spironolactone

    ‘Spironolactone is a prescription medication with anti-androgen activity,’ explains Harley Street dermatologist Dr Justine Kluk. ‘Higher levels and more potent activity of androgens, such as testosterone, can be seen in women with PCOS and contribute to the typical features of thinning hair on the scalp, excess body hair and acne, known as hyperandrogenism.’

    While the drug can be very effective in reducing these symptoms, it’s not currently licensed for treating acne in the absence of PCOS. However: ‘Interestingly, it’s now believed that 19 to 39% of women with adult acne actually have underlying PCOS,’ Justine adds.

    Can a PCOS diet help? 

    Next question: can PCOS be managed through diet and lifestyle? Short answer: absolutely.

    ‘This is one of my favourite topics to talk about,’ Anita enthuses. ‘I did a whole podcast on the subject with Dr Rupy Aujla.’

    As this article on PCOS treatment highlights, one of the best ways to stop insulin resistance is to lead a healthy, balanced lifestyle. Not sure what that means? Try the following:

    1. Get more sleep

    The benefits of getting enough sleep are very well documented and, if nothing else, all of us will agree that we feel better after getting our full eight hours.

    But it’s also important in terms of PCOS: ‘This helps to reduce stress hormone levels, which can also increase insulin resistance,’ Anita confirms. If you’re struggling with your sleep at the moment, try one of these great sleep apps.

    pcos diet

    2. Eat a balanced diet

    Reduce excess sugar intake, ignore ketogenic diets and instead think about carbs as quality over quantity, advises Anita.

    ‘Go for whole grains, oats etc that contain plenty of fibre, which will help your body get rid of old oestrogen that can otherwise recirculate and worsen the hormonal imbalance.’

    On every plate, aim for a balance of:

    • Protein
    • Wholegrain carbs
    • Fat
    • Fibre (fruit and veg)

    3. Aim for colourful veg

    On that note – making sure you’re getting enough vitamins and minerals is important, too. ‘Aiming to eat a really colourful diet to get plenty of fibre, but also for all the phytonutrients (plant-based) that contain all the chemicals that are vital for the chemical processes involved in healthy hormone production and ovulation,’ she explains.

    Healthy fats are also required for healthy hormone production. What’s basically a Mediterranean diet has been shown to be the healthiest for PCOS.

    4. Move mindfully

    Did you know? Extreme exercise can worsen hormonal imbalances, Anita says. ‘Exercise is important for women to help build lean muscle, which can increase insulin sensitivity, so some form of weight training such as weights or body weight-centred training,’ she shares.

    ‘I don’t think there’s one “best” exercise for PCOS – it’s whatever you enjoy and are going to stick to.’

    Yoga (read our round up of MC‘s favourite yoga classes, here) has been shown to be helpful in a few studies. ‘I think it can also be very useful as a way of building strength but also relaxing the mind,’ emphasises Anita. Don’t miss our guides to the different types of yoga and yoga poses, while you’re here.

    PCOS and weight loss

    ‘Lots of patients tell me they’ve been told to lose weight,’ Anita tells us. ‘Weight loss will also help with PCOS, because excess fat tissue can contribute to insulin resistance. However, I don’t ever make this the focus of my advice because I think it can be quite negative.’

    In fact, a 2013 study conducted at Georgia Regents University found that the relationship between PCOS and obesity may be exaggerated because the women who seek treatment for this will be heavier.

    ‘If you’re able to adapt your lifestyle and focus on the positive things you can add to your body through diet and movement, I think you can get to the same point but with a healthier mindset.’

    PCOS and pregnancy

    It’s true that the condition is one of the leading causes of infertility – but it’s very treatable. ‘PCOS can affect fertility because it can stop ovulation; if you don’t ovulate, you don’t release an egg and therefore cannot get pregnant,’ Anita explains.

    As outlined above, medications are available to encourage ovulation, and the NHS writes: ‘With treatment, most women with PCOS are able to get pregnant.’

    However, Anita reminds us that a lack of ovulation ‘does not apply to everyone with PCOS and, even if you do have PCOS and aren’t currently ovulating, it doesn’t mean you won’t in future.

    ‘If you have PCOS and don’t want to get pregnant, please use contraception; I’ve seen plenty of “surprise” pregnancies in women with PCOS because they thought they couldn’t get pregnant.’

    For more information and resources for living with PCOS, visit the NHS’s website or pcosaa.org.

    pcos pregnancy

    If you do have PCOS or think you may have it, know this – you are not alone, and as this article highlights, there are whole communities of doctors, experts and women who have it themselves out there ready to help.

    Note that the purpose of this feature is to inform, not replace one-to-one medical consultations. For advice tailored specifically to you, always discuss your health with a doctor.

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